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Medicinal plants are used as a source of medications in all cultures. For more than 80% of Asia's population, medicinal plants are open, reasonable, and socially acceptable sources of essential medicinal services (WHO). For thousands of years, they've been used to flavour and preserve food, cure health problems, and prevent infections and epidemics. As a result, there is widespread enthusiasm.

Biodiversity of Medicinal Plants
Medicinal Plants in Traditional care System
Global market of Medicinal Plants
Phytomedicine and Medicinal Crops
Efficacy of Medicinal Plants
Phytochemical analysis of Medicinal Plants

A natural product, in the broadest sense, is anything that is produced by life, including biotic materials (such as wood and silk), bio-based materials (such as bioplastics and corn starch), bodily fluids (such as milk and plant exudates), and other natural materials that were once found in living organisms (e.g., soil, coal). Any organic substance generated by a living organism is a more stringent definition of a natural product. Natural goods have a high structural diversity and distinctive pharmacological or biological actions as a result of hundreds of thousands of years of natural selection and evolutionary processes that have influenced their utility. Natural products chemistry function and contributions in advancing physical and biological sciences, their transdisciplinary domains, and the emergence of new paths by providing fresh applications, constructive inputs, drive, complete understanding, and a broad perspective.

Analytical Characterization of Natural Products

Ethnomedicinal And Ethnopharmacological Studies

Biosynthesis of Natural Products

Chemical Ecology

Marine medications are pharmaceuticals that are derived from marine creatures. These marine medications have been utilized since antiquity. And, strangely, traditional practitioners have been using a variety of items generated from marine species in various 'crude forms' for thousands of years all over the world.

Marine Natural Products Chemistry

Marine Chemical Biology

Ocean Bio-geochemistry

Deep Sea Mining

Herbal medicine is the study of medicinal plants' origins and use. Throughout most of human history, plants have served as the cornerstone for medical therapies. Even in the present period, herbal medicine is still commonly used. Many plants are used as sources of active chemicals in evidence-based modern medicine. Herbalism can sometimes be expanded to include fungi and bee products, as well as minerals, shells, and animal parts.

In complementary and alternative medicine, herbal medicine is very important. It's gaining a lot of traction around the world, and it's getting closer to being integrated into conventional healthcare systems.

Herbs and Natural Remedies

Standardization of Herbal Medicines

Herbal Supplements

The study of medicines or crude medications derived from natural sources such as plants, microorganisms, and animals is known as Pharmacognosy. It entails a thorough examination of their biological, chemical, biochemical, and physical characteristics.

Plant-derived medicines are thought to be easier for the human body to take because they come from nature and are not synthetic. Around 25% of prescription drugs in the United States are thought to have an active component derived from nature. Around 80% of people in underdeveloped nations rely on traditional remedies manufactured from plants and herbs, according to estimates. Plants and creatures are employed in the development of both conventional and alternative medicines in a variety of ways. The plant's beneficial active ingredient can be found in any part of its physical structure, such as a flower's petal or stem.

Acupuncture is a type of complementary medicine and an important therapeutic component of Traditional Chinese Medicine that involves inserting very thin needles into the skin and stimulating strategic points on the body with heat, pressure, or electricity to promote the flow and balance of internal energy. Acupuncture is most commonly used to manage chronic pain and some of the side effects of cancer treatment.

Chinese Acupuncture

Korean Acupuncture

Electro Acupuncture

Auricular Acupuncture

Japanese Acupuncture

French Energetic Acupuncture

Essential oils are confidently and efficaciously utilised in the most appropriate method for any illness in aromatic medicine. Aromatic, volatile essential oils are used. It entails balancing the health state using a thorough understanding of essential oils. These essential oils suppress or kill pathogens by stimulating or depressing biochemical/physiological activities and suppressing or eliminating pathogens.

Natural Oils

Essential Oils

Cancer is a major cause of deaths all around the globe. Although numerous anticancer drugs are available, most of them are expensive and have serious side effects. Natural compounds are usually non-toxic and inexpensive. Many such compounds have been identified and explored for their health benefits for centuries, and several nutritional factors derived from natural products have attracted considerable attention as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Current cancer therapies often involve surgical removal and radiation treatment of the large accumulated biomass of cancer, typically followed by systemic chemotherapy treatment used for maintenance treatment.

The anti-cancer effects of new natural products

Clinical studies and therapeutic efficacy in anti-cancer natural products

Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of cancer in natural products

As the name suggests, Ayurveda or Ayurvedic medicine is a historic Hindu system of medicine centred on the idea of body systems being in balance. Iyengar is a system of alternative medicine having roots in the Indian subcontinent and is regarded to be the world's oldest healing science. It is derived from the Sanskrit word Ayurveda, which means "The Science of Life." For many thousands of years it was passed down orally from renowned masters to their students, and it has its roots in the ancient Vedic civilization.

Ayurvedic Dosage Forms

Efficacy and Safety of Ayurvedic Medicines

Pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda

Clinical Trials on Ayurvedic Drugs

As a form of alternative medicine, homoeopathy relies on the idea that the body can heal itself. Those who practise homoeopathy believe that the healing process is stimulated by the use of small amounts of natural ingredients, such as plants and minerals. Homeopathic medicine was created in Germany in the late 1700s and is widely used throughout Europe. Based on "like cures like" theory, homoeopathy uses a very small amount of a substance known to cause health problems to treat a sickness with similar symptoms. A natural defence system is supposed to be activated.

Homoeopathic Remedies


Flower remedies


Natural Medicine can be defined as a treatment that includes medical help, herbalism, stylostixis, nutrition and way of life, and many other practises. Body, mind, and emotions are all part of the healing process in natural medication systems. Instead of focusing on a specific place or the patient's illness, they treat each patient as an individual. A naturopath is likely to counsel their patients to avoid contemporary medicines, pharmaceuticals, immunizations, and medical procedures because natural medicine is based on vitalism and self-healing.

A crude drug is any naturally occurring, unrefined substance derived from organic or inorganic sources such as plant, animal, bacteria, organs or whole organisms intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in humans or other animals. Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying. The term natural substances refers to those substances found in nature that have not had man-made changes made in their molecular structure. They are used as medicine for human being and animal, internally and externally for curing disease

For photosynthesis to take place, marine plants must be at the surface of salt water or ice, which means that they must be within reach of sunlight. In the ocean, algae, a type of marine plant, are a vital part of the food chain. High-level saltwater organisms can be supported by marine plants Algae-made marine leftovers often contain fossils that reveal the organic process history of marine plants. Plate tectonics played a role in the dispersal of marine plants as continents shifted and ocean shapes changed. For the human body to heal itself, marine plants play a vital role in supplying nutrition and nutrients.Intake of several plant nutrients is expected to reduce the risk of several types of cancer when consumed in greater quantities Since they contain large levels of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, anthocyanidins, catechin and epicatechin, as well as lignin, tannins, epigallocatechin and gallic acid, marine plants appear to be acting as atom scavengers as well as antimicrobials and malignant neoplasm inhibitors. In addition to cell reinforcement, anticancer, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and the ability to prevent human platelet agglomeration, these polyphenolic compounds have exhibited several health-beneficial bioactivities.

Marine Pharmacognosy

Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora

Phytoplankton & life-promoting nutrients

Green algae Medicinal benefits (Chlorophyta)

Red algae & and antioxidants (Rhodophyta)

Astronomy, biological oceanography, cellular biology, chemistry, ecology, geology, meteorology, molecular biology, physical oceanography, and zoology, as well as the new science of marine conservation, are all part of the study of marine biology. Many long-established scientific fields, such as marine ecology, biogeography, zoology, botany, genetics, and fisheries, are used in biology.

Marine Geology

Marine heavy metals poisoning marine toxicology

Fisheries Biology and Management

Marine Pollution

Coastal Ecology

Ocean Acidification

Astronomy, biological oceanography, cellular biology, chemistry, ecology, geology, meteorology, molecular biology, physical oceanography, and zoology, as well as the new science of marine conservation, are all part of the study of marine biology. Many long-established scientific fields, such as marine ecology, biogeography, zoology, botany, genetics, and fisheries, are used in biology.

Marine Geology

Marine heavy metals poisoning marine toxicology

Fisheries Biology and Management

Marine Pollution

Coastal Ecology

Ocean Acidification

In naturopathic medicine, the body is aided in its healing process by natural therapies. For example, there are herbal remedies and massages as well acupuncture and exercise as well as counselling on nutrition.

In the 1800s, German naturopathy was imported to the United States, but some of its therapies date back hundreds of years before to that. There are some modern components to it, but it is still based on conventional therapies. Nurturing the mind, body, and spirit is a primary purpose of naturopathic medicine. Instead of treating symptoms, it seeks to repair the disease's underlying causes.

Safety of Natural Treatments

Traditional Naturopathy


Alternative Medicine


Alternatively, plant biotechnology might be defined as a collection of approaches that are used to modify plants to specific needs. Most of us have encountered scenarios in which various desires and opportunities coexist. For example, one crop must also supply property food and healthy nutrition, environmental protection, and chances for employment and gainful employment. Finding or creating suitable plants is usually a complex task.

As a result of genetic research and genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection (MAS) and transgenic (genetic altered) crops, plant biotechnologies help to generate novel kinds and attributes. Genetic resources and breeding can be targeted for specific genes using these biotechnologies. They can also be used to transfer genes for specific qualities into plants wherever they're needed. Food and agriculture biotechnology research, training, and extension are funded by NIFA.

Plant Functional Biology and Biotechnology

Plant Pathology and Immunology

Plant Micropropagation

Seed, Fruit & Reproductive Plant Biotechnology


There is a long history of natural treatments for many prescription pharmaceuticals that are currently available to doctors, such as opioids, ibuprofen, digitalis, and antimalarials. According to the World Health Organization, over 25 percent of modern medicine used in the United States is derived from plants. Many of the sophisticated pharmaceutical pharmacopoeia's 7,000 drug combinations come from plants. 100 active chemicals extracted from higher plants are now widely used in modern medicine, with 80 percent showing a favourable association between modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived.

Green pharmacy

Herbal remedies for common diseases


Home remedies

Spagyric medicine

There is a branch of natural sciences called Plant Science, or Organic Science, which is concerned with the study of plants' morphology as well their life processes, scientific classification and physiology. Aspects of plant metabolism are also studied and investigated, as are the environmental relationships between different plants. Furthermore, plant sciences likewise incorporate the investigation of fundamental ideas and connected parts of exploratory plant science, genomics, proteomics, plant natural chemistry, cell science, developmental science, useful plant rearing and frameworks science. As the field of plant science evolves, so does the possibility of creating disease-free plants through biotechnology advancements.

Sustainable business practices

Plant Breeding

Residues in Soils and Ecotoxicology

Plant Tissue Culture

On a sterile, enriched media, plant tissue culture could be used to generate plant cells, tissues, organs, seeds, or other plant parts When starting a plant tissue culture, explants, or cellular tissue fragments, are commonly used. A wide variety of plant tissues can be used to make explants, such as a leaf or a stem or root, or an embryo or plant tissue.

Recent advances in Plant Tissue Culture

Plant reproduction and Development

Micropropagation in Plants

There are several uses for poisonous plants, including anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties as well as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and even cytogenetic effects. There are many phytochemical elements that are isolated from different therapeutic plants that have diverse actions like a diuretic medicine, laxative, purgative, and numerous other key restorative characteristics that are the focus of this field of study. A number of illnesses are cured by hepatotoxic plants used in Siddha's therapeutic approach. We must be aware of the hazardous plants that, if used in the correct dosage, can be used as possible therapeutics. Living things are poisoned by toxin atoms.

Antimicrobial activities of Poisonous Plants

Abrus Precatorius (Fabaceae)

Citrullus Colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae)

Cleistanthus Collinus (Phyllanthaceae)

Agave Sisalana (Asparagaceae)

Arum Maculatum (Araceae)

Gloriosa Superba (Colchicaceae)

Gloriosa Superba (Colchicaceae)

Arum Maculatum (Araceae)

Photosynthetic and respiration processes, together with the creation and breakdown organic molecules are all part of the plant's metabolism. These chemical reactions are the plant's basic metabolism. When it comes to metabolic engineering, it's the process of modifying cell networks such as metabolic networks as well as gene regulatory networks and signalling networks to achieve desired goals such as increased production of metabolites such as pharmaceuticals, as biofuel, or as other biotechnological goods.

A marine biologist studies aquatic creatures and their interactions with their environments. Biological oceanography and the related sciences of chemical, physical and geological oceanography are studied by marine biologists in order to gain a better understanding of the marine animals.

The study of marine biology, like all scientific fields, follows the scientific process. The ultimate purpose of science is to discover the truth. Research is usually conducted rationally and in a systematic manner to reduce the unavoidable margin of error inherent in any scientific study and to minimise the researcher's bias. In scientific inquiry, observations are the most important part of the process. Once hypotheses have been formulated and validated, they can be accepted or rejected based on a number of observations. Experiments are typically used to test hypotheses that can be predicted from the original findings.

Those who practice aquatic medicine are in charge of the medical care and welfare of aquatic creatures. As a result, they must be prepared for a wide range of illnesses and injuries, in addition to drugs and treatment options.

Allied health Science is a medical discipline that deals with all types of diagnostic techniques used in the medical field. Blood analysis, histopathology, pathological analysis, and radiography are a few examples. Allied health sciences are critical for patient treatment. With the reliance on technology for diagnosis, the role of allied health personnel has become critical for delivering successful treatment.

Complementary Medicine refers to a group of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that are used in addition to conventional medicine and do not replace standard medical practices. Acupuncture, for example, is used to help alleviate some of the side effects of modern cancer treatment. Alternative medicine differs from complementary medicine. When these therapies are used in conjunction with traditional Western medicine, they are referred to as complementary medicine. When these methods are used instead of conventional medicine, it is referred to as alternative medicine.

Complementary Medicine in Healthcare

Osteopathic medicine

Occupational Therapy


Speech Language and Audiology

Food chemistry is the study of all biological and non-biological components of foods' chemical processes and interactions. Meat, poultry, vegetables, beer, and milk are just a few examples of biological materials. It comprises areas like as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavours, and colours, and is comparable to biochemistry in terms of its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. This field also includes how products change as a result of various food processing procedures, as well as ways to improve or prevent this from happening. Food chemistry is concerned with the chemical structure and properties of food constituents, as well as the chemical changes that occur in food. The ability of food chemistry to counteract the effects of disintegration and spoilage, as well as extend the shelf life of foods, is crucial. Various household compounds, such as common salt in pickles, chutneys, and sauces, aid in food preservation.

Bioactive constituents of foods

Chemical and biochemical composition and structure

Chemistry relating to major and minor components of food

Chemistry of food additives

Traditional use of herbal medicines refers to the long historical use of these medicines. Their use is well established and widely acknowledged to be safe and effective, and may be accepted by national authorities. The traditional medicines healer therapies contain many medicines for one ailment. Out of the various medicines, one is selected by the herbal healer against a particular disease according to the symptoms and secondary effects.  Several plants are identified and used against one disease and are used according to their availability in the region. Herbal medicines are naturally occurring, plant-derived substances that are used to treat illnesses within local or regional healing practices. These products are complex mixtures of organic chemicals that may come from any raw or processed part of a plant.

Herbal medIcine and the aging population

Quality, safety, and scientific evidence

A growing field with a long tradition

Women are obsessed with looking beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. An herbal cosmetic have growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effects with synthetic drugs. The herbal cosmetics manufactured and used commonly for daily purpose include herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soap, herbal shampoo etc.  The industry is now focusing on the growing segment with a vast scope of manifold expansion in coming years.